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A third of women managers move down the career ladder after having children, according to new research.
Two thirds of these did clerical jobs or other low skills jobs. Women managers of shops, restaurants and hairdressers took the biggest drop in status and took jobs as hairdressers, sales assistants and other lower paid roles. Teachers and nurses were least likely to lose status on going part-time.
The research by academics from the University of East Anglia and Oxford University, published in the Economic Journal, found that nearly half of the managers who opted to work part-time after the birth of a child took jobs where the average worker does not have A levels.
The study said that women were not downgrading their status because they wanted to, but because flexible work at their level was not available.
Another study in the Economic Journal by Gillian Paull of the Institute of Fiscal Studies found that having children was the overwhelming reason why women sought part-time work. It found four fifths of women are in full time work before the birth of their first child, but only a third with pre-school aged children worked full time. Fathers were more likely to work full time after the birth of a child. The study found that the gender pay gap is being entrenched as a result as the gap for part time jobs is larger than that for women in full-time work.
Working mums have no child-free leisure time, according to Australian research.
The research, Contemporary Motherhood: the Impact of Children on Adult Time by Dr Lyn Craig, showed that working mothers were the least likely group to have any personal time compared with non-working mothers, fathers and single parents.
Non-working mothers with wealthier partners could buy themselves an average of 24 minutes a day of leisure. Fathers got in an average one hour and 12 minutes a day to relax without children [and more on Saturdays] and single parents got around 20 minutes a day, possibly because they were more reliant on wraparound care or because the children spent time with their fathers.